雨あがる

In the beginning of the Eighteenth Century, in the transition period between the luxurious Genroku Era (1688-1703) and the simple Kyocho Era (1716-1735), the ronin – a samurai without a master – Ihei Misawa (Akira Terao) and his sweet wife Tayo Misawa (Yoshiko Miyazaki) are trapped in a very humble inn with very poor guests. The rain does not stop, and the group is unable to follow their journeys, once the water level of the river is too high to be crossed. The good and decent Ilhei goes to a dojo without the knowledge of Tayo and disputes a fight, and with the collected money, he buys food and sake for the starving costumers, making the people very happy. After the rain, in an incident with some locals, he meets the feudal landlord, Lord Nagai Izuminokami Shigeaki (Shiro Mifune), who invites him to be the chief of art of fencing of his warriors, but the envy and proud prevail and Misawa is dismissed from the aimed job. The quiet Tayo decides to present her optimistic and touching viewpoint of what happened to Ilhei. Written by Claudio Carvalho, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

La sintaxis

La sintaxis es la parte de la gramática que estudia las reglas y principios que gobiernan la combinatoria de constituyentes sintácticos y la formación de unidades superiores a estos, como los sintagmas y oraciones gramaticales. La sintaxis, por tanto, estudia las formas en que se combinan las palabras, así como las relaciones sintagmáticas y paradigmáticas existentes entre ellas.

Dada una oración o construcción compleja esta puede dividirse en constituyentes sintácticos, cada uno de los cuales a su vez podría ser divisible o analizable en otros constituyentes. El conjunto de constituyentes sintácticos admite con la relación binaria de inclusión (o “ser parte de”) es un conjunto parcialmente ordenado. Un árbol sintáctico es una representación de las relaciones jerárquicas entre los constituyentes sintácticos. Más formalmente, un árbol sintáctico es una grafo que representa esta relación de orden parcial.

Cuando en una construcción un constituyente X es parte de un constituyente inmediato de otro constitiyente más grande Y, el árbol sintáctico correspondiente tendrá una línea entre el nodo que representa a X y en nodo que representa a Y. Actualmente se acepta que toda lengua admite una análisis mediante árboles sintácticos binarios. En los árboles gráficos los núcleos sintácticos se suelen representar con una letra, por ejemplo X, seguida de un subíndice (por ejemplo scriptstyle {X}_0), mientras que las estructuras más complejas se señalan mediante una o dos barras superpuestas o mediante primas (por ejemplo, scriptstyle bar{X}, bar{bar{X}}, X', X'') y si se trata de proyecciones máximas de un núcleo mediante la letras S antecediendo a la letra que designa al núcleo (por ejemplo SX).

Además de la relaciones de constitución en el estudio sintáctico de las lenguas existen otras relaciones no necesariamente caracterizadas por la relación de orden parcial dada por la constituencia. Entre estas relaciones están las relaciones de concordancia gramatical por la cual dos elementos generalmente no adyacentes y que forman parte de diferentes sintagmas deben concordar (presentar una marca especial que indica que cierta categoría lingüística presente en los dos elementos tiene el mismo “valor”). Igualmente las reglas de coocurrencia de los pronombres y las anáforas y sus antecedentes sólo se pueden expresar de manera sencilla en términos de la relación de rección. Tanto la relación de rección como la de ligamiento están asociadas a la relación de mando-c.

Entre las relaciones no estructurales, están las dependencias sintácticas a distancia. Estas relaciones requieren mecanismos o restricciones de gramaticalidad más complejas que la simple adyacencia o constituencia de elementos sintácticos. Entre ellas podemos citar:

El actual paradigma en la disciplina es la gramática generativa, de cuyas formas se destaca la gramática generativa transformacional que se centra en el análisis de la sintaxis como constituyente primitivo y fundamental del lenguaje natural.

La gramática generativa no centra su investigación en la descripción de oraciones, sino en cómo la mente humana logra generarlas e interpretarlas a través de un sistema mínimo e intencional. El objetivo fundamental de la gramática generativa es el diseño de un dispositivo formal capaz de explicar la generación de todas las oraciones de las lenguas humanas.

En la práctica, la descripción estructural de las oraciones suele realizarse a través de corchetamiento o de diagramas arbóreos. Ambos esquemas reflejan la jerarquía estructural de los constituyentes de la oración, a la vez que justifican (especialmente en el actual Programa minimalista) el orden lineal de las palabras.

La clásica distinción de diferentes categorías sintácticas no puede ser rescatada en la mayoría de las escuelas generativistas (LFG considera que las funciones sintácticas son primitivos de la sintaxis). Esto se debe a que se considera a tal análisis meramente descriptivista y taxonómico. Casi todas las corrientes generativistas operan con los diferentes tipos de sintagmas que permiten los núcleos léxicos y funcionales de cada lengua.

λεξικό 1

αγγελος

αμἠν

ανθρωπος

ἀποστολος

Γαλιλαἰα

γραφἠ

δὀξα (gloria)

εσχατος (ultimo)

ζωἠ (vida)

θεὀς

καἰ (asi, y)

καρδἰα

κὀσμος

λὀγος

πνευμα 気

προφἠτες

σἀββατον

εγω

φωνἠ

χριστὀς

Αβραἀμ

Δαυἰδ

Παυλος

Πἐτρος

Πιλατος

Σιμων

αγαπη

αδελφος (hermano)

αγιος (sagrado)

ἀμαρτια (pecado)

γλὠσσα (lengua)

εκκλησἰα

εργον (trabajo)

ευαγγελιον

θανατος

θρονος

Ιησους

Ισραἠλ

λιθος (piedra)

μἐγας

μἠτηρ

Μωυσης

νομος (ley)

παραβολἠ

πατηρ

πρεσβυτερος (anciano)

πἠρ (fuego)

υδωρ (agua)

Φαρισαιος

Ψυχἠ

Referencias

 

合気道

Το Aikido είναι μια Ιαπωνέζικη πολεμική τέχνη η οποία αναπτύχθηκε από τον Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969).

Η λέξη Aikido αποτελείται από τρεις χαρακτήρες Kanji:

Ai 合 – αρμονία/ένωση;
Ki 気 – πνευμα/ενέργεια;
Do 道 – ο Δρόμος

Σε ελεύθερη απόδοση Aikido σημαίνει “Ο Δρόμος της αρμονίας με το Κι (ενέργεια)”, ή “Ο Δρόμος της αρμονίας πνεύματος”.

русский алфавит

Russian Alphabet

There are 33 letters in the Russian Alphabet: 10 vowels, 21 consonants, and 2 signs (ь, ъ).

Click each letter to listen, then click again and repeat after speaker imitating the pronunciation as closely as you can.

Click “Play” to watch how to handwrite letters and words.

If you do not hear sounds switch to download mode. Why?

 

Letter Handwriting Name of Letter Similar English Sound Sample Handwriting
Download sound А а

Play
a like ar in far
Download sound   а́том

Play
Download sound Б б

Play
be like b in box
Download sound   бато́н

Play
Download sound В в

Play
ve like v in voice
Download sound   ва́режки

Play
Download sound Г г

Play
ge like g in go
Download sound   гру́ша

Play
Download sound Д д

Play
de like d in day
Download sound   ды́ня

Play
Download sound Е е

Play
ye like ye in yet or e in exit
Download sound   ежеви́ка

Play
Download sound Ё ё

Play
yo like yo in your
Download sound   ёж

Play
Download sound Ж ж

Play
zhe like s in pleasure
Download sound   жук

Play
Download sound З з

Play
ze like z in zoo
Download sound   замо́к

Play
Download sound И и

Play
ee like ee in meet
Download sound   икра́

Play
Download sound Й й

Play
ee kratkoye (short i) like y in boy
Download sound   йо́гурт

Play
Download sound К к

Play
ka like k in key or c in cat
Download sound   клубни́ка

Play
Download sound Л л

Play
el like l in lamp
Download sound   лимо́н

Play
Download sound М м

Play
em like m in man
Download sound   мали́на

Play
Download sound Н н

Play
en like n in note
Download sound   носки́

Play
Download sound О о

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o like o in not
Download sound   о́вощи

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Download sound П п

Stop
pe like p in pet
Download sound   пе́рец

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Download sound Р р

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er like r in rock (but rolled)
Download sound   ры́ба

Play
Download sound С с

Play
es like s in sun
Download sound   стул

Play
Download sound Т т

Play
te like t in table
Download sound   торт

Play
Download sound У у

Play
oo like oo in moon
Download sound   у́дочка

Play
Download sound Ф ф

Play
ef like f in food
Download sound   фру́кты

Play
Download sound Х х

Play
kha like ch in Scottish loch
Download sound   хво́я

Play
Download sound Ц ц

Play
tse like ts in boots
Download sound   ци́фры

Play
Download sound Ч ч

Play
che like ch in chat
Download sound   ча́шка

Play
Download sound Ш ш

Play
sha like sh in short
Download sound   ша́пка

Play
Download sound Щ щ

Play
shcha like sh_ch in fresh_cheese
Download sound   щётка

Play
Download sound ъ

Play
tviordiy znak (hard sign) has no sound
Download sound ы

Play
ih* like i in ill
Download sound ь

Play
myagkiy znak (soft sign) has no sound
Download sound Э э

Play
e like e in end
Download sound   экра́н

Play
Download sound Ю ю

Play
yoo like u in use
Download sound   ю́бка

Play
Download sound Я я

Play
ya like ya in yard
Download sound   я́блоко

Play

* ih – “h” had been added to produce a more open sound, but is not pronounced as an English “h”.
 

About Russian Alphabet

 

Russian is an Eastern Slavonic language closely related to Ukrainian and Belorussian with about 277 million speakers in Russia and 30 other countries.The Cyrillic alphabet was introduced into Russia (Kievan Rus’ ) at the time of its conversion to Christianity (988 AD). The alphabet, the Cyrillic script is named in honor of the Byzantine scholar and monk, Cyril (827-869 AD), who, together with his brother Methodius (826-885 AD), created the first Slavic writing system in the second half of the ninth century in order to translate the Bible and other Christian texts into the Slavic languages.

Cyril and Methodius called their alphabet Glagolitsa, or the Glagolitic alphabet. The name comes from the Old Slavic word glagolŭ, which means ‘sound’. The Glagolitic alphabet was used for Slavonic manuscripts for a relatively short period of time (no more than a century) before the development of the Cyrillic. The Cyrillic alphabet was derived from Glagolitic by Cyril’s pupils and named after him. Cyrillic letters are different from the Glagolitic ones and have lots in common with the Greek letters.

Until the 17th century, the only written language in Russia was Church Slavonic. Civil Russian language started appearing in writing during the reign of Peter the Great (1672-1725). The dialect of Moscow was used as the basis for written Russian. The new civil alphabet was introduced by Peter the Great himself in order to write civil books, books on science and other texts not related to the church.

Four letters were eliminated from the alphabet in a 1918 language reform. Since 1918 the alphabet remains unchanged.

 

Russian keyboard layout

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Numen

Numen, pl. numina, (“an influence perceptible by mind but not by senses,”) is a Latin term for a potential, guiding the course of events in a particular place or in the whole world, used in Roman philosophical and religious thought. The many names for Italic gods may obscure this sense of a numinous presence in all the seemingly mundane actions of the natural world.[1]

The word was also used in the imperial cult of ancient Rome, to refer to the guardian-spirit, ‘godhead’ or divine power of a living emperor—in other words, a means of worshiping a living emperor without literally calling him a god.

The word numen is also used by sociologists to refer to the idea of magical power residing in an object, particularly when writing about ideas in the western tradition. When used in this sense, numen is nearly synonymous with mana. However, some authors reserve use of mana for ideas about magic from Polynesiaand southeast Asia.

Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud

Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (/ræmˈb/ or /ˈræmb/French pronunciation: [aʁtyʁ ʁɛ̃bo]; 20 October 1854 – 10 November 1891) was a French poet. Born in CharlevilleArdennes, he produced his works while still in his late teens—Victor Hugo described him at the time as “an infant Shakespeare”—and he gave up creative writing altogether before the age of 20. As part of the decadent movement, Rimbaud influenced modern literature, music, and arts, and prefiguredsurrealism.

voyelles

A noir, E blanc, I rouge, U vert, O bleu : voyelles,
Je dirai quelque jour vos naissances latentes :
A, noir corset velu des mouches éclatantes
Qui bombinent autour des puanteurs cruelles,

Golfes d’ombre ; E, candeur des vapeurs et des tentes,
Lances des glaciers fiers, rois blancs, frissons d’ombelles ;
I, pourpres, sang craché, rire des lèvres belles
Dans la colère ou les ivresses pénitentes ;

U, cycles, vibrements divins des mers virides,
Paix des pâtis semés d’animaux, paix des rides
Que l’alchimie imprime aux grands fronts studieux ;

O, suprême Clairon plein des strideurs étranges,
Silence traversés des Mondes et des Anges :
– O l’Oméga, rayon violet de Ses Yeux ! –

A. Rimbaud

Principal Doctrines

Epicurus of Samos, 270BC

Sovran Maxims

“No pleasure is a bad thing in itself”

  • Death is nothing to us; for that which has no sensation is nothing to us.
  • The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain.
  • It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and honorably and justly, and it is impossible to live wisely and honorably and justly without living pleasantly.
  • No pleasure is a bad thing in itself, but the things which produce certain pleasures entail disturbances many times greater than the pleasures themselves.
  • If we had never been troubled by weather, death and pain, we should have had no need of natural science.
  • The wealth required by nature is limited and is easy to procure; but the wealth required by vain ideals extends to infinity.
  • Chance seldom interferes with the wise man; his greatest and highest interests have been, are, and will be, directed by reason throughout his whole life.
  • The just man is most free from disturbance, while the unjust is full of the utmost disturbance.
  • If you fight against all your sensations, you will have no standard to which to refer
  • Of all the means which wisdom acquires to ensure happiness throughout the whole of life, by far the most important is friendship.

Continue reading “Principal Doctrines”