羅生門

Truth is a complex subject to explore, capture, and define. Continually we are faced with the question, what is truth and what is fiction. Truth serves a role in every day life, there is a skewed sense of truth in history and it is depicted as a major controlling factor in the movie, Rashomon. The idea of truth is all around us but can we really perceive what is accurate.

The Rashomon Effect is the phenomenon by which observers of an event can produce very different but entirely plausible accounts of what happened. This is because every person has a unique set of life experiences that cause him to pay attention to things in his own way. Physical position and personal relationship to the event, as well as psychological makeup, determine how a person will perceive it. This is one reason why eyewitness testimony can be so unreliable.

Der Treue Husar

“The Faithful Hussar” (Frantzen) here played by the American trumpetist Louis Armstrong and his band.

The Faithful Hussar — in German, “Der treue Husar” – is a German folk song, presumed to be from 1825. It is prominently featured in the Stanley Kubrick film “Paths of Glory“, where a female German prisoner, portrayed by Kubrick’s later wife Christiane Kubrick, sings this song in front of French soldiers, stirring strong emotions among them.

The faithful Hussar is also the title of a little known German movie from 1954, directed by Rudolf Schündler.[1] This film inspired recordings by British artists Ted Heath and Vera Lynn (as “Don’t Cry My Love), both of which hit the Billboard Top 100.

1. Es war einmal ein treuer Husar,
Der liebt’ sein Mädchen ein ganzes Jahr,
|: Ein ganzes Jahr und noch viel mehr,

Die Liebe nahm kein Ende mehr. 😐
2. Der Knab’ der fuhr ins fremde Land,
Derweil ward ihm sein Mädchen krank,
|: Sie ward so krank bis auf den Tod,

Drei Tag, drei Nacht sprach sie kein Wort. 😐
3. Und als der Knab’ die Botschaft kriegt,
Daß sein Herzlieb am Sterben liegt,
|: Verließ er gleich sein Hab und Gut,

Wollt seh’n, was sein Herzliebchen tut. 😐
4. Ach Mutter bring’ geschwind ein Licht,
Mein Liebchen stirbt, ich seh’ es nicht,
|: Das war fürwahr ein treuer Husar,

Der liebt’ sein Mädchen ein ganzes Jahr. 😐
5. Und als er zum Herzliebchen kam,
Ganz leise gab sie ihm die Hand,
|: Die ganze Hand und noch viel mehr,

Die Liebe nahm kein Ende mehr. 😐
6. “Grüß Gott, grüß Gott, Herzliebste mein!
Was machst du hier im Bett allein?”
|: “Hab dank, hab Dank, mein treuer Knab’!

Mit mir wird’s heißen bald: ins Grab!” 😐
7. “Grüß Gott, grüß Gott, mein feiner Knab.
Mit mir wills gehen ins kühle Grab.
|: “Ach nein, ach nein, mein liebes Kind,

Dieweil wir so Verliebte sind.” 😐
8. “Ach nein, ach nein, nicht so geschwind,
Dieweil wir zwei Verliebte sind;
|: Ach nein, ach nein, Herzliebste mein,

Die Lieb und Treu muß länger sein. 😐
9. Er nahm sie gleich in seinen Arm,
Da war sie kalt und nimmer warm;
|: “Geschwind, geschwind bringt mir ein Licht!

Sonst stirbt mein Schatz, daß’s niemand sicht. 😐
10. Und als das Mägdlein gestorben war,
Da legt er’s auf die Totenbahr.
|: Wo krieg ich nun sechs junge Knab’n,

Die mein Herzlieb zu Grabe trag’n? 😐
11. Wo kriegen wir sechs Träger her?
Sechs Bauernbuben die sind so schwer.
|: Sechs brave Husaren müssen es sein,

Die tragen mein Herzliebchen heim. 😐
12. Jetzt muß ich tragen ein schwarzes Kleid,
Das ist für mich ein großes Leid,
|: Ein großes Leid und noch viel mehr,

Die Trauer nimmt kein Ende mehr.

Continue reading “Der Treue Husar”

Sanskrit Numbers

Numerals 0 to 9

Devanagari
Indian/Hindu 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Sanskrit word शून्य एक द्वि त्रि चतुर् पञ्च षष् सप्त अष्ट नव
śūnya éka1 dvi2 trí3 catúr4 pañca5 ṣáṣ6 saptá7 aṣṭá8 náva9

Numerals 10 to 100

Devanagari
Indian/Hindu 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Sanskrit word dasa ékadasa dvadasa trayodasa caturdasa pancadasa shash saptadasa aṣṭádasa návadasa
Devanagari
Indian/Hindu 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Sanskrit word vimsati10 trimsati11 catvarimsati12 pancasat13 sasti sapti asiti navati satam, sata

Numerals greater then 100

Number Sanskrit
200 dvisata
300 trisata
356 sat pancasat trisata
400 catursata
500 pancasata
1000 sahasra
2000 dvisahasra
3000 trisahasra
4000 catursahasra
10,000 dasasahasra, ayuta
20,000 vimsatsahasra
30,000 trimsatsahasra
100,000 satasahasra, laksha, lak
200,000 dvi-sata-sahasra
300,000 tri-sata-sahasra
1,000,000 prayuta, niyuta
10,000,000 koti, krore
100,000,000 arbuda, vrnda, nyarbuda

Numerals from Billion and above

Number Sanskrit
1,000,000,000 abja, shatakoti, maharbuda, nikharva, nikarvaka, badva
10,000,000,000 kharva
100,000,000,000 nikharva, akshita
1,000,000,000,000 mahaapadma, antya, antyam, nikharva
10,000,000,000,000 sha.nku
100,000,000,000,000 jaladhi
1000,000,000,000,000 antya
10,000,000,000,000,000 madhya
100,000,000,000,000,000 paraardha

Word-Numeral Decimal System

It was the ancient Bharatbhoomi that gave us the ingenious methods of expressing all the numbers by means of 10 symbols (decimal systems). The highest prefix used for raising 10 to the power in today’s mathematics is “D” for 1030 (for Greek Deca). While as early as 100 BC Hindu mathematicians had exact names for figures up to 1053.

Word-Numeral Decimal Equivalent
Ekam 100
Dashkam 101
1 Shatam 102
1 Shahashram 103
10 Dash Shahashram 104
Laksha 105
Dash Laksha 106
Kotihi 107
Ayutam 109
Niyutam 1011
Kankaram 1013
Vivaram 1016
Pararadahaa 1017
Nivahata 1019
Utsangaha 1021
Bahulam 1023
Naagbaalaha 1025
Titlambam 1027
Vyavasthaanapragnaptihi 1029
Hetuhellam 1031
Karahuhu 1033
Hetvindreeyam 1035
Sampaata Lambhaha 1037
Gananaagatihi 1039
Niravadyam 1041
Mudraabalam 1043
Saraabalam 1045
Vishamagnagatihi 1047
Sarvagnaha 1049
Vibhutangaama 1051
Tallakshanaam 1053

References

Footnotes
1. éka (एक) or ekah
2. dvi (द्वि) or dvau / dva / dve
3. trí (त्रि) or tryah, tisra
4. catúr (चतुर्) or catvaras, catasras, catvari
5. pañca (पञ्च)
6. ṣáṣ (षष्) or sat, shash
7. saptá (सप्त)
8. aṣṭá (अष्ट) or astau
9. náva (नव)
10. vinshat, vinshati, dvidasha
11. trinsha, trinshat
12. catvarinshat
13. panchasha, panchashat, ardha shata: half of a hundred

Mesoamerican Studies

The Foundation (FAMSI) was created in 1993 to foster increased understanding of ancient Mesoamerican cultures. The Foundation aims to assist and promote qualified scholars who might otherwise be unable to undertake or complete their programs of research and synthesis. Projects in the following disciplines are urged to apply: anthropology, archaeology, art history, epigraphy, ethnography, ethnohistory, linguistics, and related fields.
The Research Department  provides access to the Barbara & Justin Kerr Photographic Collection, the Linda & David Schele Image Collection, the John Montgomery Drawing Collection, and the Bibliografía Mesoamericana. It also houses a Mesoamerican-oriented library that includes over 2600 volumes donated by Michael D. Coe. Projects funded by the Foundation are not restricted to investigations conducted on the Foundation premises. To go to the Research Department page, click here.

The Graz Codices

Now, courtesy of Akademische Druck – u. Verlagsanstalt – Graz, Austria, FAMSI provides access to their definitive facsimiles of the ancient accordion fold books created hundreds of years ago by Aztec, Maya and Mixtec scribes. To view these codices click here.

The Loubat Codices

Access to the duc de Loubat codex facsimilies in conjunction with Universitätsbibliothek Rostock and Bibliothek der Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (BBAW), with thanks to Michael Dürr FAMSI project coordinator, Mr. Rosenau of Mikro-Univers, Ms. Danielewski and Dr. Thiemer-Sachse of BBAW. To view these codices click here.

The Kerr Maya Vase Collection

The Maya Vase Database is a photographic archive created by Justin Kerr, who devised a method of peripheral photography to create rollout photographs of circular vessels. Justin Kerr provides his copyrighted photographs at no cost for study purposes. Contact Barbara Kerr at mayavase@aol.com for information concerning fees for commercial use and publication rights. To learn more about the Kerr collections, click here or here to explore the Maya Vase data base directly.
The Kerr PreColumbian Portfolio
The PreColumbian Portfolio is an easily searchable database of photographs. It can be searched by selecting an item from a menu or by typing a word. Material is added frequently and spans a myriad of PreColumbian cultures. The Portfolio provides an opportunity to see images of sites, sculpture and ceramics other than vases. Click here to explore the Kerr PreColumbian Portfolio.

Mesoamerican Language Texts Digitization Project

The Mesoamerican Language Texts Digitization Project developed from a desire to make available to scholars, students, and enthusiasts world-wide, a selection of primary documents pertaining to the ethnohistory and linguistics of the indigenous populations of Mexico and northern Central America. This is a collaborative arrangement between Sandra Noble, Ph.D., Director, Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI) and the Libraries of the University of Pennsylvania. To view these pages click here.

The John Montgomery Drawing Collection

This database of John Montgomery’s drawings is designed to allow scholars to study the sculpture and glyphic inscriptions in clear, linear drawings, while retaining the sensibility of the PreColumbian Maya artists. The drawings are primarily of Maya sculpture and objects from the ancient sites of Bonampak, Palenque, Piedras Negras, Seibal, and Tikal, among others. Informative captions accompany each image. While Mr. Montgomery’s copyrighted drawings are freely available for scholarly usage; information concerning fees for publication usage is available by contacting the Foundation. To learn more about John Montgomery with a link to his online “Dictionary of Maya Hieroglyphs”, click here or here to explore the Drawing Collection directly.

Piedras Negras Archaeology, 1931-1939

An online publication from the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Library. To learn more about the Piedras Negras Archaeology, 1931-1939, click here.

Piedras Negras Online

A photographic archive of the Piedras Negras Project, 1997-2000 by Stephen Houston, Héctor Escobedo, Zachary Hruby, and Jessica Skousen. This project excavated at Piedras Negras, Guatemala, over a span of four seasons, from 1997 to 2000. “Our objective as archaeologists has been to collect and share evidence. We are merely the stewards of research results at Piedras Negras, not its owners. For that reason, our database is to be used by anyone and everyone, provided their intent is scholarly.” To learn more about the Piedras Negras Project, click here or here to search the photographs directly.

Piedras Negras Archaeological Project

Years of investigations by the Piedras Negras Project of Brigham Young University and the Universidad del Valle, have produced valuable information about the Usumacinta river basin. During the 1999 field season, KBYU Television sent a camera crew to Piedras Negras to capture an “image” of the site and the work being conducted there. Click to view the video clips that provide an audio/visual introduction to the archaeological site. Also the 2000 field season has permitted the completion of works in the South Group and in the Acropolis, adding fresh information on the population and its artifacts. To view this report (only available in Spanish at this time) click here.

Introduction to Mesoamerica

When Mexican historian Paul Kirchhoff first introduced the term “Mesoamerica,” he defined it as a cultural zone where the indigenous inhabitants spoke as many as sixty different languages, but were united by a common history and shared a specific set of cultural traits that made their civilization unique in the world. Dr John Pohl, an eminent authority on American Indian civilizations, has put together a primer of Mesoamerican History. To view these pages click here.

Maya Museum Database

An online resource, the Maya Museum Database gives students, scholars, and anyone interested in Maya art a good starting point for their research. Along with a list of Maya collections, the database also provides active features, such as hyperlinks to available homepages and e-mail addresses. To learn more about Maya Museum Database, click here or here to explore the Database directly.

The Linda Schele Drawing Collection

The Schele Drawing Collection consists of about one thousand drawings of Mesoamerican monuments, buildings, objects, and hieroglyphic texts, with an emphasis on ancient Maya objects from México, Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize. Approximately 960 of Linda Schele’s drawings have been catalogued with brief descriptions. These drawings are available to the public free of charge, with restrictions for commercial use and publication. To learn more about Linda Schele and the drawing collection, click here or here to explore the drawings directly.

The Tikal Digital Access Project

During the fifteen years (1956-1970) that the University of Pennsylvania Museum (UPM) carried out archaeological investigations at the ancient Maya city of Tikal, Guatemala, professional photographers and researchers created over 60,000 photographic images. A great many of these images recorded primary data about the Maya past during architectural restoration, excavation, survey, and laboratory work. Click here to learn more about the Tikal Digital Access Project or here to search the images.

Catalogue of Zapotec Effigy Vessels

The Zapotec, whose ancient culture flourished for over a millennium in southwest Mesoamerica, have been the topic of a diversity of studies primarily because their unique history provides clues about the origins of civilization and how urban societies evolve. One aspect of their material culture has received special attention, the so-called Zapotec urn, a type of ceramic vessel with anthropomorphic or zoomorphic effigies attached. Because these artifacts are rich in iconographic information, their study has offered an unparalleled source of information on ancient Zapotec society. Adam Sellen’s catalogue of Zapotec Effigy Vessels is a versatile tool designed to present the most up to date information on the urns in a way that is inter-relational and easy to access. This on-line catalogue of artifacts is a dynamic entity, one that can be constantly updated, corrected and added to as new information comes forth. Click here to learn more about the Catalogue of Zapotec Effigy Vessels.

Independent Works

The Foundation is pleased to post the research of scholarship not funded by FAMSI but that contributes to the advancement of Mesoamerican studies. Potential contributors should contact the director, Dr. Sandra Noble. To view additional resources, click here.

Was gesagt werden muss

Günter Grass

Warum schweige ich, verschweige zu lange,
was offensichtlich ist und in Planspielen
geübt wurde, an deren Ende als Überlebende
wir allenfalls Fußnoten sind.

Es ist das behauptete Recht auf den Erstschlag,
der das von einem Maulhelden unterjochte
und zum organisierten Jubel gelenkte
iranische Volk auslöschen könnte,
weil in dessen Machtbereich der Bau
einer Atombombe vermutet wird.

Doch warum untersage ich mir,
jenes andere Land beim Namen zu nennen,
in dem seit Jahren – wenn auch geheimgehalten –
ein wachsend nukleares Potential verfügbar
aber außer Kontrolle, weil keiner Prüfung
zugänglich ist?

Das allgemeine Verschweigen dieses Tatbestandes,
dem sich mein Schweigen untergeordnet hat,
empfinde ich als belastende Lüge
und Zwang, der Strafe in Aussicht stellt,
sobald er mißachtet wird;
das Verdikt “Antisemitismus” ist geläufig.

Jetzt aber, weil aus meinem Land,
das von ureigenen Verbrechen,
die ohne Vergleich sind,
Mal um Mal eingeholt und zur Rede gestellt wird,
wiederum und rein geschäftsmäßig, wenn auch
mit flinker Lippe als Wiedergutmachung deklariert,
ein weiteres U-Boot nach Israel
geliefert werden soll, dessen Spezialität
darin besteht, allesvernichtende Sprengköpfe
dorthin lenken zu können, wo die Existenz
einer einzigen Atombombe unbewiesen ist,
doch als Befürchtung von Beweiskraft sein will,
sage ich, was gesagt werden muß.

Warum aber schwieg ich bislang?
Weil ich meinte, meine Herkunft,
die von nie zu tilgendem Makel behaftet ist,
verbiete, diese Tatsache als ausgesprochene Wahrheit
dem Land Israel, dem ich verbunden bin
und bleiben will, zuzumuten.

Warum sage ich jetzt erst,
gealtert und mit letzter Tinte:
Die Atommacht Israel gefährdet
den ohnehin brüchigen Weltfrieden?
Weil gesagt werden muß,
was schon morgen zu spät sein könnte;
auch weil wir – als Deutsche belastet genug –
Zulieferer eines Verbrechens werden könnten,
das voraussehbar ist, weshalb unsere Mitschuld
durch keine der üblichen Ausreden
zu tilgen wäre.

Und zugegeben: ich schweige nicht mehr,
weil ich der Heuchelei des Westens
überdrüssig bin; zudem ist zu hoffen,
es mögen sich viele vom Schweigen befreien,
den Verursacher der erkennbaren Gefahr
zum Verzicht auf Gewalt auffordern und
gleichfalls darauf bestehen,
daß eine unbehinderte und permanente Kontrolle
des israelischen atomaren Potentials
und der iranischen Atomanlagen
durch eine internationale Instanz
von den Regierungen beider Länder zugelassen wird.

Nur so ist allen, den Israelis und Palästinensern,
mehr noch, allen Menschen, die in dieser
vom Wahn okkupierten Region
dicht bei dicht verfeindet leben
und letztlich auch uns zu helfen.

Unter falscher Flagge

Während die Amerikaner verhältnismäßig schnell mit gefälschten Beweisen zuerst Afghanistan und später den Irak angreifen, wächst der Zweifel an der offiziellen Version des 11. Septembers. Was unmittelbar nach den Anschlägen an Spekulationen im Internet kursierte, galt bisher als wilde Verschwörungstheorie. Doch die Indizien und sogar Beweise zeichnen ein deutliches Bild. Nicht islamische Terroristen, sondern einige ranghohe Militärs und Politiker der US-Regierung selbst, scheinen für die schrecklichen Anschläge verantwortlich zu sein.

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